Every quarter we conduct a comprehensive review of main DLT infrastructure platforms. We cover both public (permissionless) and private (permissioned) platforms attempting to provide a clear distinction in key dimensions such as scalability, consensus mode, validation time, data confidentiality, support of smart contracting and others.


Below is a comprehensive list of blockchain (and broader Distributed Ledger Technology) infrastructure platforms that we analyse:

  • Libra

  • Cardano

  • Concordium

  • Corda

  • Cosmos

  • Dfinity

  • EOS

  • Ethereum (Post-PoS Upgrade)

  • Ethereum (Pre-PoS Upgrade)

  • Hashgraph

  • Hyperledger Fabric (IBM proprietary DLT)

  • Iota

  • Nano (Ex- Railblocks)

  • Neo

  • Qtum

  • Quorum

  • Stellar

  • Tezos

  • Tron

  • Vechain

  • Zilliqa

Key terms and definitions

Distributed Ledger Technology (DLT) - A digital system for recording the transaction of assets in which the transactions and all related data are replicated and synchronized across multiple sites, with no central data store or administration functionality.


Proof-of-Work (PoW) - A type of consensus algorithm to validate coin transaction status and asset management. It involves creating a piece of data which is time-consuming for a computer to produce but easy for others to verify and which satisfies certain requirements.


Proof-of-Stake (PoS) - A type of consensus algorithm by which a blockchain network aims to achieve distributed consensus. Under PoS, a person can mine or validate block transactions according to how many coins he or she holds. 

Consensus mode - Mechanism implemented in the protocol to ensure convergence of the various participants on a common vision of the truth


Control on participating nodes - Extent of decentralization in the DLT implementation


Data confidentiality -  Feasibility or not to obfuscate data and processing from participants not concerned by a transaction, including from validating nodes


Approach to "scaling to infinite" -  Mechanism envisioned to theoretically go beyond any scaling limitation


Validation time - Delay necessary before a user can be reasonably certain that his transaction will not be reverted.


Support of smart-contracting -  Ability of the platform to be used as an execution environment for decentralized logic distributed to the nodes of the network

Cost of execution -  Costs incurred by participants to have data processed by the network

Currencies available on-chain -  Availability of tokenized units of account from the real world

Development team robustness -  Technical depth and breadth of the community

Development ecosystem -  Languages used on the platform to program codes passed to the distributed virtual machine